About the project
Concrete is something not often linked to boat, let alone dragon boat. Traditional concept of concrete based building material is embedded deeply not only in common folks but also in Civil Engineering students.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete (for its visual resemblance to Portland stone), is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time
Still, concrete is just a material, and material evolves as scientific progress advances. New material such as FRP rebars show even better performance than traditional steel rebars. Moreover, as its Chinese name indicated, concrete is just 'some sort of ash mixed and hardens', expanding its concept to a even higher dimension. Comparing to traditional boat building material, concrete has its own pros and cons.
- Stain proof (v.s. steel)
- Flexible shape (v.s. timber)
- Economical (v.s. steel and timber)
- Heavier than water and timber
- Low tensile strength
The whole project is aimed at exploiting the advantages of concrete while fixing its problems, expanding our knowledge of concrete through engineering practice.
Prototype 1.x - The First FRP Concrete Dragon Boat
A new type of boat construction method is proposed firstly by Prof. Yan Xiao. The basic idea is to use a self-hardening FRP cloth material as both concrete model and structural part that provides tensile strength.
This is some material recently become popular for its ability of free shaping and fast hardening. Most common scenario of usage is replacement of medical bondage and plaster, or electrical wire joint protection. The mechanism is really simple as it's just piece of FRP soaked into glue. Exposition to air solidify the glue in several minutes, providing the structure with some strength.
Things become interesting when several layers of such kind of material are glued together. As FRP clothes is extremely strong in tensile direction, even glue can sustain the relatively less strong shearing force, guaranteeing high bending and shearing strength.
A plastic hull is needed for this model, primarily for the shape control of the self-hardening FRP clothes. To achieve better dynamic performance, hull is modeled to be smooth and continuous - NURBS interposition of key points. Therefore, 3D-printing technology is adopted for precise realization of the model.
ECC concrete is a new kind of concrete which includes PVA fiber to increase its tensile strength and crack resistance. Ingredients are listed as below:
|Quartz Sand 20-40||1.1|
|Quartz Sand 325||0.1|
|Water Reduce Agents||0.10%|
|Early Strength Agents||0.10%|
Prototype 1.x focuses itself on boat construction. A boat floating on the water marked success of the first stage. On that occasion, however, path splits for two different prototypes though.
Prototype 2.x stays small and is optimized for wireless remote control. A concrete dragon boat (model) competition is later held based on this. Prototype 3.x is develped with optimization for man-powered sailing in a much larger scale - a real concrete dragon boat.
Prototype 2.x - ICDBC 2019
Fast, stable, swift steering
To make it fast, the boat has to be speed boat alike, narrow, and light. The concrete layer needs to be as thin as possible. For sure, boat surface still needs to be smooth and continuous.
To make it stable and swift steering, the boat has to be not that narrow in width, motors parallel to each other and as far away as each other as possible.
Duo RH-380 motors, 1500mAh Li-ion battery
Should gave adopted stronger motors.
CentOS7, php7.2, MySQL5.3, Nginx, WordPress Vultr Dallas
Should have set limitations on motor power.
Should have provided ai version.
Should have made it clear that theme color can be switched.
Should have designed certificate templates.
Should have adopted Arduino.
Prototype 3.x - The Great Dragon Boat
Strong, stable, light
The large boat is very different from the small boat as construction method can not be inherited directly. It is too slow for the hull to be 3d-printed out. Instead, EPS foam slices cut by CO2 laser are glued (or tied) up to form the basic model of the boat. A FRP clothes layer is then put on the foam, then concrete with FRP bars inside.
To make the boat strong, the boat is modeled even more smooth, to the extent that FRP rebars can be put inside the concrete from head to tail without cut or connect. Such smooth shape without any edge can be regarded as a 2-d arch, making the most of the compressive strength of the concrete. To make the boat stable, the boat should have a lower gravity center.
- Should have the whole boat hull made by solid EPS form.
- Should have adopted sprayed concrete technique.
- Should have used more PVA.
- Should have used more FRP fiber clothes.
Yan Xiao 肖岩
Boat Designer, Engineer, Manufacturer, Website Programmer and Designer
Ke Ma 马克
Ke Ma 马克, Dade Lai 赖大德, Zhiwei He 贺智伟
Also thanks for help by
Anqi Tan 谭安琪, Yiqi Feng 冯亦奇, Kaihang Zhang 张开航, Zhekai Li 李哲楷, Mengjun Wang 王梦君, Guoli Wang 汪郭立, Yang Zhou 周洋, Shangchun Jiang 江上春, Cristoforo Demartino, Zicheng Bao 包梓成
Jiahui Liang 梁嘉惠, Ke Ma 马克, Sicheng Zhou 周思成, Anqi Tan 谭安琪, Qingyun Liu 柳青云
Bo Shan 单波, Dade Lai 赖大德
Logistic Support by
Sicheng Zhou 周思成
Competition Rule Maker
Yan Xiao 肖岩, Ke Ma 马克, Yiqi Feng 冯亦奇, Anqi Tan 谭安琪, Kaihang Zhang 张开航
Hang Wu 吴行, Ke Ma 马克, Binbin Li 李宾宾, Yanlong Xie 谢焱龙, Sichen Zhou 周思成, Tao Li 李涛, Jiahui Liang 梁嘉惠, Zhiwei He 贺智伟, Dade Lai 赖大德, Haixiang Zhu 朱海翔, Yi Zhang 张旖, Chenchen Ye 叶晨晨, Qian Yu 余倩, Jinyan Yu 俞静琰, Fengqing Jiang 江凤清 and other volunteers from ZJUI
Special Thanks for
Jiyao Guo 郭霁瑶, Zhaijin Jia 贾翟菁, Qingbing Xie 谢庆兵
Tianyi Han 韩天屹, Si Li 李斯
Yue Feng 冯越, Hanyin Shao 邵寒吟